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Kamis, 13 September 2012

Aktivitas Antimikroba Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, officinalis Emblica, Madu dan granatum Punica dan Penyusunan Formula Minuman Kesehatan dan Salad

ABSTRAK

Tujuan: Obat tradisional India telah dipakai dalam praktek pengobatan sejak dahulu kala. Obat tradisional menghubungkan tubuh kita dengan alam untuk hidup sehat. Antimikroba alami dalam makanan bervariasi dalam keberhasilan mereka dan fungsi, toksikologi, keamanan dan mekanisme tindakan terhadap mikroorganisme. Metodologi dan Hasil: Penelitian merevitalisasi sistem obat tradisional untuk mencapai kemandirian dalam perawatan kesehatan dan kesehatan bagi semua dengan menganalisis properti antimikroba dari ekstrak air dari aloevera (Aloevera barbedensis), wortel (Daucus carota), gooseberry India (Emblica officinalis), madu dan buah delima (Punica granatum), dan untuk menilai alasan penghambatan pertumbuhan organisme patogen dengan DNA dan analisis protein. Ekstrak air menunjukkan berbagai hambatan untuk microrganisms seperti Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexineri dan Staphylococcus aureus. Kesimpulan arti dan dampak dari penelitian: Penelitian ini juga dirumuskan dan standar minuman kesehatan bergizi dan salad menggunakan makanan diuji dan diperkirakan umur simpan dan nilai gizi. Minuman kesehatan dan salad memiliki kandungan protein, rendah karbohidrat dan rendah lemak moderat. Terapi minuman kesehatan ini dan salad dapat digunakan untuk mengobati obesitas.

Keywords: Antimicrobial property, aloevera, carrot, amla, honey and pomegranate

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Jumat, 17 Agustus 2012

On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study


Summary. Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall texture, ultrastructure of the lorica forming granules, and the histochemical and enzymatic findings are not evident. Therefore, further studies are required to estimate the taxonomic significance of these features and the ecological role of sedimenting loricae.

Key words: Chemical composition, crystal lattice, EDX analysis, enzyme digestion, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, histochemical methods, lorica, tintinnid.

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