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Kamis, 13 September 2012

Evaluation of Handheld Assays for the Detection of Ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Disinfected Waters

Evaluation of Handheld Assays for the Detection of Ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Disinfected Waters

Abstract

Development of a rapid field test is needed capable of determining if field supplies of water are safe to drink by the warfighter during a military operation. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of handheld assays (HHAs) in detecting ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in water. Performance of HHAs was evaluated in formulated tap water with and without chlorine, reverse osmosis water (RO) with chlorine, and RO with bromine. Each matrix was prepared, spiked with ricin or SEB at multiple concentrations, and then loaded onto HHAs. HHAs were allowed to develop and then read visually. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined for all HHAs in each water type. Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, in brominated or chlorinated waters, LODs for SEB increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level. In brominated water, the LOD for ricin increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

Abstrak

Pengembangan uji lapangan yang cepat diperlukan mampu menentukan apakah bidang pasokan air yang aman untuk diminum oleh Warfighter selama operasi militer. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk menilai efektivitas tes genggam (HHAs) dalam mendeteksi risin dan staphylococcal enterotoksin B (SEB) dalam air. Kinerja HHAs dievaluasi dalam air keran dirumuskan dengan dan tanpa kaporit, air reverse osmosis (RO) dengan klorin, dan RO dengan bromin. Setiap matriks disiapkan, dibubuhi risin atau SEB pada beberapa konsentrasi, dan kemudian dimuat ke HHAs. HHAs diizinkan untuk mengembangkan dan kemudian membaca secara visual. Batas deteksi (LOD) ditentukan untuk semua HHAs di setiap jenis air. Kedua risin dan SEB terdeteksi oleh HHAs dalam air keran dirumuskan pada atau di bawah tingkat kesehatan menyarankan efek dari 455 ng / mL dan 4,55 ng / mL, masing-masing. Namun, di perairan brominasi atau diklorinasi, Lods untuk SEB meningkat menjadi sekitar 2.500 ng / mL. Lods untuk risin meningkat dalam air yang mengandung klor, tapi masih tetap di bawah tingkat kesehatan menyarankan efek. Dalam air brominasi, LOD untuk risin meningkat menjadi sekitar 2.500 ng / mL. Kesimpulannya, HHAs diuji kurang efektif dalam mendeteksi risin dan SEB dalam air didesinfeksi, seperti konfigurasi saat ini.
Selasa, 15 Maret 2011

List of Open Access Genetics Research

Research article    
Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle
Szyda J, Morek-Kopec M, Komisarek J, Zarnecki A
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:30 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Comparative analysis of copy number variation detection methods and database construction
Koike A, Nishida N, Yamashita D, Tokunaga K
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:29 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]

Senin, 14 Maret 2011

List of Latest Research on Evolutionary Biology

Research article    
Sensing and adhesion are adaptive functions in the plant pathogenic xanthomonads
Mhedbi-Hajri N, Darrasse A, Pigne S, Durand K, Fouteau S, Barbe V, Manceau C, Lemaire C, Jacques MA
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:67 (11 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Population dynamics and genetic changes of Picea abies in the South Carpathians revealed by pollen and ancient DNA analyses
Magyari EK, Major A, Balint M, Nedli J, Braun M, Racz I, Parducci L
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:66 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae
Vilstrup JT, Ho SYW, Foote AD, Morin PA, Kreb D, Krutzen M, Parra GJ, Robertson KM, de Stephanis R, Verborgh P, Willerslev E, Orlando L, Gilbert MTP
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:65 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Methodology article    
The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis
Campbell V, Legendre P, Lapointe FJ
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:64 (9 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Phylogenetics and evolution of Su(var)3-9 SET genes in land plants: rapid diversification in structure and function
Zhu X, Ma H, Chen Z
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:63 (9 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes
Tazi L, Imamichi H, Hirschfeld S, Metcalf JA, Orsega S, Perez-Losada M, Posada D, Lane HC, Crandall KA
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:62 (8 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Diversity and selective sweep in the OsAMT1;1 genomic region of rice
Ding Z, Wang C, Chen S, Yu S
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:61 (8 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection
Louthan AM, Kay KM
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:60 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Reduced stability of mRNA secondary structure near the translation-initiation site in dsDNA viruses
Zhou T, Wilke CO
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:59 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Kamis, 12 Juni 2008

UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ATSIRI DAN EKSTRAK METANOL LENGKUAS (Alpinia galanga)

Yuharmen*, Yum Eryanti, Nurbalatif
Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA, Universitas Riau
Diterima 6-1-2002 Disetujui 10-2-2002

ABSTRACT

Many kinds of spice plants grow in Indonesia. One of them is Galangale (Alpinia galanga). This spice is used as not only for cooking, but also as traditional medicine. The determination of antimicrobial activity from its essential oil and methanol extracs is described in this report. Galangale essential oil can retain the growth of the Bacillus subtilis bactery at the consentration of 6% with the inhibition diameter 9 mm. At the concentration of 8% can retain the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteries with the inhibition diameter 10 mm and 7 mm respectively. Galangale essential oil gives active respons toward Neurospora sp and Penicillium sp at the concentration of 8% and the inhibition diameter 9 mm and 7 mm respectively. On the other hand, its is inactive toward Escherichia coli bactery and Rhizopus sp. mold. Among eight methanol extract fractions F4 fraction shows the highest activity. The inhibition diameter of F4 fraction toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteries are 13 mm, 11 mm and 12 mm respectively. Fractions of F1, F2, F3, and F4 are very active toward Rhizopus sp with the inhibition diameter 15 mm, 19 mm, 17 mm and 17 mm respectively. Methanol extract fractions are inactive toward Penicillium sp. Otherwise, the fraction of F1, F4, F5, and F6 have lower activities than that of Neurospora sp, except F7 fraction which has an inhibition diameter area of 18 mm.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, antimicrobial, essential oil, substitution

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DAYA ANTIBAKTERI CAMPURAN EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) DAN KULIT BATANG PULASARI (Alyxia reinwardtii BL)

Yustina Sri Hartini*, C.J., Soegihardjo**, Ayu Intan Chrisna Putri*, Maria Imaculata Astuti Setyorini*, Donny Kurniawan*
*Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Sanata Dharma Yogyakarta
**Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

Intisari
Masyarakat telah mengunakan buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari secara tradisional sebagai obat, baik secara terpisah maupun sebagai campuran yang sering disebut ‘adaspulowaras’. Pencampuran bahan obat dapat kemungkinan dapat menyebabkan peruabahan pada aktivitas farmakologisnya. Oleh karena itu dirasa perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang daya antibakteri buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari secara terpisah maupun campurannya. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan metode maserasi menggunakan etanol. Uji daya antibakteri dengan metode difusi dan dilusi, sebagai mikroba uji digunakan Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik ekstrak etanol buah adas, kulit batang pulasari maupun campuran buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari (4 : 3 ) menunjukan daya antibakteri yang lebih besar terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dibandingkan terhadap Escherichia coli. Daya antibakteri campuran ekstrak etanol buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari (4 : 3) lebih rendah dibandingkan ekstrak etanol buah adas maupun ekstrak etanol kulit batang pulasari.

Kata kunci : Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Alyxia reinwardtii BL, campuran, daya anti bakteri

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Selasa, 03 Juni 2008

Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Daging Buah Putih dan Jambu Biji Daging Buah Merah Sebagai Antidiare

I Ketut Adnyana*, Elin Yulinah, Joseph I. Sigit, Neng Fisheri K., Muhamad Insanu
Unit Bidang Ilmu Farmakologi-Toksikologi, Departemen Farmasi, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132

Abstrak

Telah duji aktivitas antibakteri (penyebab diare) ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih dan jambu biji daging buah merah (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, dan Salmonella typhi dan uji antidiare dengan metode proteksi terhadap diare imbasan-minyak jarak dan metode transit intestinal pada mencit. Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih memiliki kemampuan hambat bakteri yang lebih besar daripada jambu biji daging buah merah (KHM terhadap Escherichia coli (60 mg/ml vs >100 mg/ml), Shigella dysenteriae (30 mg/ml vs 70 mg/ml), Shigella flexneri (40 mg/ml vs 60 mg/ml), dan Salmonella typhi (40 mg/ml vs 60 mg/ml). Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada konsistensi feses, berat total feses, waktu munculnya diare, lamanya diare, dan kecepatan transit usus untuk kedua ekstrak uji dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol. Frekuensi defekasi mencit yang diberi ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih 150 mg/kg bb pada menit ke180-240 menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna dibanding kelompok kontrol (p<0,05).

Kata kunci : aktivitas antibakteri, metode transit intestinal, ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah merah, ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah putih

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PENGKAJIAN KAPANG ENDOFIT DARI TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG HALIMUN SEBAGAI PENGHASIL GLUKOAMILASE

Ruth Melliawati*, Ricky Setiadi Suherman**, dan Bambang Subardjo**
* Pusat Penelitian Bioteknolgi LIPI, Jl. Raya Bogor KM.46 Cibinong, Bogor
** Univ. Jenderal Soedirman Jl. Dr. Soeparno, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto

ABSTRACT

Production of glucoamylase generally used through the fermentation-using microorganism. One of microorganism source which never been studied are from endophyte fungus. The purpose of this research is to study the potential microbes of Gunung Halimun Nasional Park (GHNP) for glucoamylase production. Thirty-seven isolate of endophyte fungi has been investigated for the ability of glucoamylase production on PSA (Potato starch agar) media with the strength of clear zone and colony. The potential isolates inoculated to Czapek media to produce glucoamylase on 50 ml scale and measured its activity every 24 hours of incubation time for 96 hours. The best isolate then was reproduced on the larger media (100 ml), and resumed with filtration and ultra-filtration. The enzyme activity, specific activity, and degree of protein was measured in every phase. Selection of amylolitic strength resulted that HL.110F.488 produced the highest amylolitic strength with halo size of 10.47 cm2 , or equal with hydrolysis of starch of 0.0494 gram for 96 hours, while both isolate HL.44F.199 and HL.45F.205 had low amylolitic capacities but a very wide of colony growth, each 38.54 cm2 and 30.76 cm2. Isolat HL.44F.199 produced the highest enzyme activity of 5452.633 unit at 72 hours fermentation, while isolate HL.45F.205 with 4725.58 units at 72 hours fermentation and isolate HL.110F.488 with 3167.609 units at 96 hours fermentation. Glucoamylase has been reproduced by isolate HL.44F.199 on volume media 100 ml. The results show that enzyme activity is 4197.10 units with specific activity 2851.44 U/mg proteins, both get an increasing result after filtration and ultra-filtration reach out 5910.86 units and 4534.45 U/mg proteins.

Keywords: endophyte fungus, glucoamylase production

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Aspergillus species identification in the clinical setting

S.A. Balajee1*, J. Houbraken2, P.E. Verweij3, S-B. Hong4, T. Yaghuchi5, J. Varga2,6 and R.A. Samson2

1Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., 2CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of
Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Korean Agricultural
Culture Collection, Suwon, Korea; 5Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; 6Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged,
H-6701 Szeged, P.O. Box 533, Hungary

Correspondence: S. Arunmozhi Balajee, fir3@cdc.gov

Abstract: Multiple recent studies have demonstrated the limited utility of morphological methods used singly for species identification of clinically relevant aspergilli. It is
being increasingly recognised that comparative sequence based methods used in conjunction with traditional phenotype based methods can offer better resolution of species
within this genus. Recognising the growing role of molecular methods in species recognition, the recently convened international working group meeting entitled “Aspergillus
Systematics in the Genomic Era” has proposed several recommendations that will be useful in such endeavors. Specific recommendations of this working group include the use
of the ITS regions for inter section level identification and the β-tubulin locus for identification of individual species within the various Aspergillus sections.


Key words: Emericella, molecular phylogeny, pathogenic aspergilli, polyphasic taxonomy, section Aspergillus section Terrei, section Usti.

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Sabtu, 31 Mei 2008

Antifeedant Activity of Melia azedarach (L.) Extracts to Diabrotica speciosa (Genn.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetles

Maurício Ursi Ventura* and Márcio Ito
Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Agronomia, Campus Universitário, C.P. 6001, CEP 86051-
970 Londrina - PR, Brazil

ABSTRACT
Studies were carried out to determine the antifeedant activity of extracts of leaves, stems, flowers and fruits of Melia azedarach (L.), the dosage activity responses to the most active extract and the effects of sunlight in the activity persistence to Diabrotica speciosa (Genn.) beetles. Extracts efficiency was determined by evaluating leaf consumption. Insect feeding was deterred by stems, fruits and flowers extracts. Flowers and fruits extracts were the most efficient. Stems extract was in an intermediate position between the two most efficient and the least one (leaf extracts). The most active extract (flowers) was sprayed at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 g/100 ml. Feeding of D. speciosa on common bean leaves extracts decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of flowers extract, responding in a concentration-dependent manner. Two days after spraying, from 4 to 7 g/100 ml concentrations, feeding was totally inhibited. Four days after spraying, feeding occurred in 4-g/100 ml concentration. When common bean plants exposed to sunlight were sprayed with flowers extract (5-g/100 ml), beetles feeding increased gradually after extract spraying. Results showed that the lack of activity under sunlight conditions was a great limitation to use M. azedarach aqueous extracts.

Key words: Insecta, Leaf beetle, Phaeolus vulgaris (L.), Deterrence, Botanical insecticide 

 
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