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Kamis, 13 September 2012

Evaluation of Handheld Assays for the Detection of Ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Disinfected Waters

Evaluation of Handheld Assays for the Detection of Ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Disinfected Waters

Abstract

Development of a rapid field test is needed capable of determining if field supplies of water are safe to drink by the warfighter during a military operation. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of handheld assays (HHAs) in detecting ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in water. Performance of HHAs was evaluated in formulated tap water with and without chlorine, reverse osmosis water (RO) with chlorine, and RO with bromine. Each matrix was prepared, spiked with ricin or SEB at multiple concentrations, and then loaded onto HHAs. HHAs were allowed to develop and then read visually. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined for all HHAs in each water type. Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, in brominated or chlorinated waters, LODs for SEB increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level. In brominated water, the LOD for ricin increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

Abstrak

Pengembangan uji lapangan yang cepat diperlukan mampu menentukan apakah bidang pasokan air yang aman untuk diminum oleh Warfighter selama operasi militer. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk menilai efektivitas tes genggam (HHAs) dalam mendeteksi risin dan staphylococcal enterotoksin B (SEB) dalam air. Kinerja HHAs dievaluasi dalam air keran dirumuskan dengan dan tanpa kaporit, air reverse osmosis (RO) dengan klorin, dan RO dengan bromin. Setiap matriks disiapkan, dibubuhi risin atau SEB pada beberapa konsentrasi, dan kemudian dimuat ke HHAs. HHAs diizinkan untuk mengembangkan dan kemudian membaca secara visual. Batas deteksi (LOD) ditentukan untuk semua HHAs di setiap jenis air. Kedua risin dan SEB terdeteksi oleh HHAs dalam air keran dirumuskan pada atau di bawah tingkat kesehatan menyarankan efek dari 455 ng / mL dan 4,55 ng / mL, masing-masing. Namun, di perairan brominasi atau diklorinasi, Lods untuk SEB meningkat menjadi sekitar 2.500 ng / mL. Lods untuk risin meningkat dalam air yang mengandung klor, tapi masih tetap di bawah tingkat kesehatan menyarankan efek. Dalam air brominasi, LOD untuk risin meningkat menjadi sekitar 2.500 ng / mL. Kesimpulannya, HHAs diuji kurang efektif dalam mendeteksi risin dan SEB dalam air didesinfeksi, seperti konfigurasi saat ini.
Selasa, 15 Maret 2011

List of Open Access Genetics Research

Research article    
Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle
Szyda J, Morek-Kopec M, Komisarek J, Zarnecki A
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:30 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Comparative analysis of copy number variation detection methods and database construction
Koike A, Nishida N, Yamashita D, Tokunaga K
BMC Genetics 2011, 12:29 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]

Senin, 14 Maret 2011

List of Latest Research on Evolutionary Biology

Research article    
Sensing and adhesion are adaptive functions in the plant pathogenic xanthomonads
Mhedbi-Hajri N, Darrasse A, Pigne S, Durand K, Fouteau S, Barbe V, Manceau C, Lemaire C, Jacques MA
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:67 (11 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Population dynamics and genetic changes of Picea abies in the South Carpathians revealed by pollen and ancient DNA analyses
Magyari EK, Major A, Balint M, Nedli J, Braun M, Racz I, Parducci L
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:66 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae
Vilstrup JT, Ho SYW, Foote AD, Morin PA, Kreb D, Krutzen M, Parra GJ, Robertson KM, de Stephanis R, Verborgh P, Willerslev E, Orlando L, Gilbert MTP
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:65 (10 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Methodology article    
The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis
Campbell V, Legendre P, Lapointe FJ
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:64 (9 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
Phylogenetics and evolution of Su(var)3-9 SET genes in land plants: rapid diversification in structure and function
Zhu X, Ma H, Chen Z
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:63 (9 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF]
Research article    
HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes
Tazi L, Imamichi H, Hirschfeld S, Metcalf JA, Orsega S, Perez-Losada M, Posada D, Lane HC, Crandall KA
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:62 (8 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Diversity and selective sweep in the OsAMT1;1 genomic region of rice
Ding Z, Wang C, Chen S, Yu S
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:61 (8 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection
Louthan AM, Kay KM
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:60 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Research article    
Reduced stability of mRNA secondary structure near the translation-initiation site in dsDNA viruses
Zhou T, Wilke CO
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:59 (7 March 2011)
[Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]
Kamis, 12 Juni 2008

UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ATSIRI DAN EKSTRAK METANOL LENGKUAS (Alpinia galanga)

Yuharmen*, Yum Eryanti, Nurbalatif
Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA, Universitas Riau
Diterima 6-1-2002 Disetujui 10-2-2002

ABSTRACT

Many kinds of spice plants grow in Indonesia. One of them is Galangale (Alpinia galanga). This spice is used as not only for cooking, but also as traditional medicine. The determination of antimicrobial activity from its essential oil and methanol extracs is described in this report. Galangale essential oil can retain the growth of the Bacillus subtilis bactery at the consentration of 6% with the inhibition diameter 9 mm. At the concentration of 8% can retain the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteries with the inhibition diameter 10 mm and 7 mm respectively. Galangale essential oil gives active respons toward Neurospora sp and Penicillium sp at the concentration of 8% and the inhibition diameter 9 mm and 7 mm respectively. On the other hand, its is inactive toward Escherichia coli bactery and Rhizopus sp. mold. Among eight methanol extract fractions F4 fraction shows the highest activity. The inhibition diameter of F4 fraction toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteries are 13 mm, 11 mm and 12 mm respectively. Fractions of F1, F2, F3, and F4 are very active toward Rhizopus sp with the inhibition diameter 15 mm, 19 mm, 17 mm and 17 mm respectively. Methanol extract fractions are inactive toward Penicillium sp. Otherwise, the fraction of F1, F4, F5, and F6 have lower activities than that of Neurospora sp, except F7 fraction which has an inhibition diameter area of 18 mm.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, antimicrobial, essential oil, substitution

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