Jurnal mikrobiologi         Microbiolgy    
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Kamis, 12 Juni 2008


Yuharmen*, Yum Eryanti, Nurbalatif
Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA, Universitas Riau
Diterima 6-1-2002 Disetujui 10-2-2002


Many kinds of spice plants grow in Indonesia. One of them is Galangale (Alpinia galanga). This spice is used as not only for cooking, but also as traditional medicine. The determination of antimicrobial activity from its essential oil and methanol extracs is described in this report. Galangale essential oil can retain the growth of the Bacillus subtilis bactery at the consentration of 6% with the inhibition diameter 9 mm. At the concentration of 8% can retain the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteries with the inhibition diameter 10 mm and 7 mm respectively. Galangale essential oil gives active respons toward Neurospora sp and Penicillium sp at the concentration of 8% and the inhibition diameter 9 mm and 7 mm respectively. On the other hand, its is inactive toward Escherichia coli bactery and Rhizopus sp. mold. Among eight methanol extract fractions F4 fraction shows the highest activity. The inhibition diameter of F4 fraction toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteries are 13 mm, 11 mm and 12 mm respectively. Fractions of F1, F2, F3, and F4 are very active toward Rhizopus sp with the inhibition diameter 15 mm, 19 mm, 17 mm and 17 mm respectively. Methanol extract fractions are inactive toward Penicillium sp. Otherwise, the fraction of F1, F4, F5, and F6 have lower activities than that of Neurospora sp, except F7 fraction which has an inhibition diameter area of 18 mm.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, antimicrobial, essential oil, substitution

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Yustina Sri Hartini*, C.J., Soegihardjo**, Ayu Intan Chrisna Putri*, Maria Imaculata Astuti Setyorini*, Donny Kurniawan*
*Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Sanata Dharma Yogyakarta
**Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

Masyarakat telah mengunakan buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari secara tradisional sebagai obat, baik secara terpisah maupun sebagai campuran yang sering disebut ‘adaspulowaras’. Pencampuran bahan obat dapat kemungkinan dapat menyebabkan peruabahan pada aktivitas farmakologisnya. Oleh karena itu dirasa perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang daya antibakteri buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari secara terpisah maupun campurannya. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan metode maserasi menggunakan etanol. Uji daya antibakteri dengan metode difusi dan dilusi, sebagai mikroba uji digunakan Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik ekstrak etanol buah adas, kulit batang pulasari maupun campuran buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari (4 : 3 ) menunjukan daya antibakteri yang lebih besar terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dibandingkan terhadap Escherichia coli. Daya antibakteri campuran ekstrak etanol buah adas dan kulit batang pulasari (4 : 3) lebih rendah dibandingkan ekstrak etanol buah adas maupun ekstrak etanol kulit batang pulasari.

Kata kunci : Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Alyxia reinwardtii BL, campuran, daya anti bakteri

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Selasa, 03 Juni 2008


Ruth Melliawati*, Ricky Setiadi Suherman**, dan Bambang Subardjo**
* Pusat Penelitian Bioteknolgi LIPI, Jl. Raya Bogor KM.46 Cibinong, Bogor
** Univ. Jenderal Soedirman Jl. Dr. Soeparno, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto


Production of glucoamylase generally used through the fermentation-using microorganism. One of microorganism source which never been studied are from endophyte fungus. The purpose of this research is to study the potential microbes of Gunung Halimun Nasional Park (GHNP) for glucoamylase production. Thirty-seven isolate of endophyte fungi has been investigated for the ability of glucoamylase production on PSA (Potato starch agar) media with the strength of clear zone and colony. The potential isolates inoculated to Czapek media to produce glucoamylase on 50 ml scale and measured its activity every 24 hours of incubation time for 96 hours. The best isolate then was reproduced on the larger media (100 ml), and resumed with filtration and ultra-filtration. The enzyme activity, specific activity, and degree of protein was measured in every phase. Selection of amylolitic strength resulted that HL.110F.488 produced the highest amylolitic strength with halo size of 10.47 cm2 , or equal with hydrolysis of starch of 0.0494 gram for 96 hours, while both isolate HL.44F.199 and HL.45F.205 had low amylolitic capacities but a very wide of colony growth, each 38.54 cm2 and 30.76 cm2. Isolat HL.44F.199 produced the highest enzyme activity of 5452.633 unit at 72 hours fermentation, while isolate HL.45F.205 with 4725.58 units at 72 hours fermentation and isolate HL.110F.488 with 3167.609 units at 96 hours fermentation. Glucoamylase has been reproduced by isolate HL.44F.199 on volume media 100 ml. The results show that enzyme activity is 4197.10 units with specific activity 2851.44 U/mg proteins, both get an increasing result after filtration and ultra-filtration reach out 5910.86 units and 4534.45 U/mg proteins.

Keywords: endophyte fungus, glucoamylase production

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Aspergillus species identification in the clinical setting

S.A. Balajee1*, J. Houbraken2, P.E. Verweij3, S-B. Hong4, T. Yaghuchi5, J. Varga2,6 and R.A. Samson2

1Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., 2CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of
Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Korean Agricultural
Culture Collection, Suwon, Korea; 5Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; 6Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged,
H-6701 Szeged, P.O. Box 533, Hungary

Correspondence: S. Arunmozhi Balajee, fir3@cdc.gov

Abstract: Multiple recent studies have demonstrated the limited utility of morphological methods used singly for species identification of clinically relevant aspergilli. It is
being increasingly recognised that comparative sequence based methods used in conjunction with traditional phenotype based methods can offer better resolution of species
within this genus. Recognising the growing role of molecular methods in species recognition, the recently convened international working group meeting entitled “Aspergillus
Systematics in the Genomic Era” has proposed several recommendations that will be useful in such endeavors. Specific recommendations of this working group include the use
of the ITS regions for inter section level identification and the β-tubulin locus for identification of individual species within the various Aspergillus sections.

Key words: Emericella, molecular phylogeny, pathogenic aspergilli, polyphasic taxonomy, section Aspergillus section Terrei, section Usti.

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